Received: 18th July 2023; Revised: 29th November 2023, 06th December 2023; Accepted: 08th December 2023


  • Isidora Emmanuelle A. De Joya Student, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
  • Charmagne Lizzette F. Inao Student, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
  • Christian Danielle D. Olegario Student, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
  • Jose Miguel S. Villegas Student, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines


Utang Na Loob, Voting Culture, Cavite, Filipino Values, Patron-Clientelism


The Philippine voting culture has been heavily influenced by the value of Utang na Loob. Hence, the study dissects the experience and the ethical perception of voters to the Filipino culture of indebtedness as the basis of their choice. The research centers in selected towns of Cavite, particularly Bacoor and Imus, from where eight respondents who are registered Filipino voters, have participated in at least one local election and have encountered Utang na Loob were selected. The data gathered from virtual semi-structured interviews underwent Thematic Analysis utilizing Landa Jocano’s Smooth Interpersonal Relation Model, integrated with the Consequentialist Framework. The responses indicated that while Utang na Loob is an essential Filipino value, it is negatively used as a tool to gain favor of voters in politics. However, Filipinos belonging in Socioeconomic Class E counterclaim that Utang na Loob in politics should be supported. The results also indicated that the formation of Utang na Loob beyond political dynasties is a personal connection formed between individuals. This shall significantly contribute to philosophical and political literature in the Philippines and provide a novel perspective on the understanding of Filipino values, particularly Utang na Loob in the context of the Philippine voting culture.


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