Received: 27th February 2024 Revised: 29th February 2024 & 13th March 2024 Accepted: 28th February 2024


  • Jiamao Yan School of Business, University of Southampton Institutional address: University Road, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom


Globalization, Income Inequalities, Emerging Economies, Gini Index, Case Study


The purpose of this research paper is to study the impacts of globalization on income inequality, especially in different emerging economies across the globe. The study has focused on four emerging countries including Argentina, Brazil, Indonesia, and Thailand. The paper has also relied on authentic databases like the World Bank and Statista for the purpose of data collection and analysis of globalization and its impacts on income distribution in the selected emerging economies. On the other hand, trusted and reputed journals, articles and other secondary sources have also been considered for understanding the relationship between globalization and income inequality dynamics in the selected emerging economies. The study findings have highlighted the presence of adverse impacts of globalization on income distribution in all the emerging economies that have been selected for analysis. The poorer sections of the population and especially those working in the subsistence skills industries. or having redundant skills and lack of access to education have been suffering from loss or reduction in their income. Based on the study findings, recommendations for proper and more effective policy directions have been developed in this research paper.


Ahluwalia, M.S. (2019). Income inequality: some dimensions of the problem. In The Gap between Rich and Poor (pp. 14-21). Routledge.

Alves, C., & Toporowski, J. (2019). Growth of international finance and emerging economies: elements for an alternative approach.

Amah, O.E., & Amah, O.E. (2019). The new face of globalization. Globalization and Leadership in Africa: Developments and Challenges for the Future, pp.41-54.

Andersson, M., Axelsson, T., & Palacio, A. (2021). Resilience to economic shrinking in an emerging economy: the role of social capabilities in Indonesia, 1950–2015. Journal of Institutional Economics, 17(3), pp.509-526.

Arretche, M. (Ed.). (2018). Paths of inequality in Brazil: a half-century of changes. Springer.

Batista, L., Gong, Y., Pereira, S., Jia, F., & Bittar, A. (2019). Circular supply chains in emerging economies–a comparative study of packaging recovery ecosystems in China and Brazil. International Journal of Production Research, 57(23), pp.7248-7268.

Beumer, C., Figge, L., & Elliott, J. (2018). The sustainability of globalisation: Including the ‘social robustness criterion.’ Journal of Cleaner Production, 179, pp.704-715.

Cáceres, D.M., & Gras, C. (2020). A tipping point for agricultural expansion? Technological changes and capital accumulation in Argentina's rural sector. Journal of Agrarian Change, 20(1), pp.79-97.

Chancel, L., Piketty, T., Saez, E., & Zucman, G. (Eds.). (2022). World inequality report 2022. Harvard University Press.

Firebaugh, G. (2018). The new geography of global income inequality. In The Inequality Reader (pp. 681-694). Routledge.

Fornes, G., & Mendez, A. (2018). The China-Latin America axis: Emerging markets and their role in an increasingly globalised world. Springer.

Gorynia, M. (2019). Competition and globalization in economic sciences. Selected aspects. Economics and Business Review, 5(3), pp.118-133.

Heimberger, P. (2020). Does economic globalization affect income inequality? A meta‐analysis. The World Economy, 43(11), pp.2960-2982.

Huh, H.S., & Park, C.Y. (2021). A new index of globalization: Measuring impacts of integration on economic growth and income inequality. The World Economy, 44(2), pp.409-443.

Hussain, H.I., Haseeb, M., Kamarudin, F., Dacko-Pikiewicz, Z., & Szczepańska-Woszczyna, K. (2021). The role of globalization, economic growth, and natural resources on the ecological footprint in Thailand: Evidence from nonlinear causal estimations. Processes, 9(7), p.1103.

Karaduman, C. (2022). The effects of economic globalization and productivity on environmental quality: evidence from newly industrialized countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(1), pp.639-652.

Kohpaiboon, A., & Jongwanich, J. (2021). Economic consequences of globalization: case study of Thailand. This Volume, pp.164-191.

Mohajan, H.K. (2018). Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 7(1), pp.23-48.

Munck, R. (2021). Globalisation and Development. In Rethinking Development: Marxist Perspectives (pp. 189-208). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Mwika, D., Banda, A., Chembe, C., & Kunda, D. (2018). The impact of globalization on SMEs in emerging economies: A case study of Zambia. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 9(3), pp.59-68.

Nayak, J.K., & Singh, P. (2021). Fundamentals of research methodology problems and prospects. SSDN Publishers & Distributors.

Ngamaba, K.H., Panagioti, M., & Armitage, C.J. (2018). Income inequality and subjective well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Quality of Life Research, 27, pp.577-596.

Niewiadomski, P. (2020). COVID-19: from temporary de-globalisation to a re-discovery of tourism? Tourism Geographies, 22(3), pp.651-656.

Osabuohien, E.S., Beecroft, I., & Efobi, U.R. (2018). Global trade and trade protection in a globalised world. Transnational Corporations Review, 10(1), pp.43-52.

Oxfam International (2018). Inequality in Indonesia: millions kept in poverty. [online] Available at:


Pandey, P., & Pandey, M.M. (2021). Research methodology tools and techniques. Bridge Centre.

Perraton, J. (2019). The scope and implications of globalisation. In The Handbook of Globalization, Third Edition (pp. 50-76). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Porto, N., & Espinola, N. (2019). Labor income inequalities and tourism development in Argentina: A regional approach. Tourism Economics, 25(8), pp.1265-1285.

Ramazanov, I.A., Panasenko, S.V., Cheglov, V.P., Krasil’nikova, E.A.E., & Nikishin, A.F. (2021). Retail transformation under the influence of digitalisation and technology development in the context of globalisation. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 7(1), p.49.

Soto, D.A. (2020). Technology and the future of work in emerging economies: What is different.

Statista Infographics (2023). Infographic: FDI in Developing Asia Weathers COVID Upset. [online] Available at:

Statista (2022). Argentina - share of economic sectors in the gross domestic product 2020. [online] Available at:

Statista (2022). Global wealth distribution by region 2022. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Jan. 2024].

Statista (2022). Income held by top 20 percent in Argentina. [online] Available at:

Statista (2023). Indonesia - share of economic sectors in the gross domestic product 2022. [online] Available at:

Statista (2023). Thailand - export of goods 2022. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Jan. 2024].

Sugiharti, L., Esquivias, M.A., Shaari, M.S., Agustin, L., & Rohmawati, H. (2022). Criminality and Income Inequality in Indonesia. Social Sciences, 11(3), p.142.

Sutcliffe, B., & Glyn, A. (2019). Measures of globalisation and their misinterpretation. In The Handbook of Globalisation, Third Edition (pp. 77-90). Edward Elgar Publishing.

The World Bank (2021). GINI Index. [online] World Bank. Available at:

Thomas, C.G. (2021). Research methodology and scientific writing. Thrissur: Springer.

Vanitcharearnthum, V. (2019). Top income shares and inequality: Evidences from Thailand. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 40(1), pp.40-46.

Villén-Pérez, S., Anaya-Valenzuela, L., da Cruz, D.C., & Fearnside, P.M. (2022). Mining threatens isolated indigenous peoples in the Brazilian Amazon. Global Environmental Change, 72, p.102398.

World Bank Open Data (2023). World Bank Open Data. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Jan. 2024].

World Bank (2021). Trade (% of GDP) | Data. [online] Available at:

World Bank (2023). GDP (current US$). [online] The World Bank. Available at: .

World Bank (2023). Thailand Poverty Brief. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Jan. 2024].

Zangirolami-Raimundo, J., de Oliveira Echeimberg, J., & Leone, C. (2018). Research methodology topics: Cross-sectional studies. Journal of Human Growth and Development, 28(3), pp.356-360.